Debugging Embedded Linux on Colibri iMX6 using Visual Studio's Visual C++ for Linux Development Environment

We are able to write our C-applications using Visual Studio, load them to the Colibri iMX6 module, get them compiled natively on the target and even remotely debug them via gdbserver like e.g. outlined in the following Microsoft article.

However the instructions fopen and printf generate segmentation fault if single stepping but seem to be executing alright if a breakpoint gets set on a consecutive line.

So far we were able to develop our applications like that using a Raspberry Pi before we received proper Toradex hardware.

Now our applications are ready to be ported to suitable hardware to be sold to our customers. Besides other requirements e.g. one technical point is that we need to guarantee operation across a wide range of temperature conditions in which the Colibri iMX6 should work. We do have to make sure our hardware operates reliably even on roof tops of buildings in much warmer regions as well.

My question is now why the VC debugger locks up on the Colibri iMX6 while it works fine on the Raspberry Pi?

Is there a need to deploy any further things?

Does Toradex or anybody else have any experience with such a development environment?

Using Visual Studio on Linux is not the officially supported configuration for development on our devices.
We anyway tried the same configuration you are working on with Visual Studio 2015 and Windows 10 fast ring pre-creators update and got similar results. We were able to build and run applications, even using the Yocto-generated SDK (only on fast-ring machines, it may be that the required fixes to the Windows 10 on Linux subsystem have been released now with creators update) and had similar issues when stepping into library functions.
If you used the suggested toolchain for Raspberry Pi, that supports only ARMv4 instruction set (the one supported on the ARM11 core of the Raspberry Pi 1) and this may explain why the debugger is apparently not managing well the code generated by an ARMv7 compiler.
What version of Visual Studio are you using for your tests? On what release of the Windows 10 Linux subsystem?